Bertens was one of the favourites in the women's field, and many people's tip to claim her maiden Grand Slam title after a fabulous clay-court season in which she won the Madrid title.
After just 21 minutes of play on Court Philippe-Chatrier, a tearful Bertens told the trainer that she was shaking and had no energy, before leaving the court in distress.
"Yesterday I felt good. No problems at all. I was practicing, resting, and I felt really well. Ready for today. And then this morning I woke up at 3:00, and then I felt really sick," Bertens later told the press.
"Vomiting, diarrhea all night long, all day long. I felt a little bit better before the match. I had some sleep, and I just wanted to give it a try, but then as soon as I start warming up right before the match, it started again. Yeah, there was not any energy left."
She added: "Yeah, I'm always trying. You never know what happens on court. I just wanted to give myself, give the chance to play and see what's happening. But it was, no, it was better maybe not to step on the court today."
Her withdrawal means that Kuzmova breaks new Grand Slam ground by going through to a third round for the first time.
The 21-year-old Slovakian will play the winner of the match currently on Court 1 between Johanna Konta and Lauren Davis.
Meanwhile, Canadian No.22 seed Bianca Andreescu withdrew ahead of her second round against Sofia Kenin that was scheduled for Thursday due to an ongoing right shoulder injury that had kept her out of action since March, prior to this tournament.